An adjournment may be regarded as putting off or conceding of procedures; a conclusion or dismissal of additional business by a Court, the overseeing body, or open power—either quickly or forever.

If a deferment is decisive, it is supposed to be sine kick the container, “without day” or without a period fixed to proceed with the work. A dismissal isn’t exactly equivalent to a break, which is only a concise break in procedures. An officers’ Court (Magistrate Court) may concede the procedures at whatever point. The Court must alter the interests of value while contemplating any application for dismissal. The Court can’t have unfaltering principles for the surrendering or refusal of dismissals. A case should not to be excused because regular procedures are forthcoming and may be one-sided. In case an intentional onlooker fails to go at the information about the solicitation, you should request a recess and make an application for a spectator summons. You should in like manner be in a circumstance to show that the eyewitness pledged to visit. The Court may, if an acceptable clarification is appeared, at any time of the suit award time to the get-togethers, or to any of them, and may from time to time, suspend the information about the suit for inspirations to be recorded as a printed copy. Given that no delay will be permitted different events to a social occasion during the getting mindful of the suit.

The facts demonstrate that cap on dismissals to a gathering during the becoming aware of the suit gave in stipulation to Order XVII Rule 1 Code of Civil Procedure isn’t obligatory and in a reasonable case, on legitimate reason, the court may give multiple suspensions to a gathering for its proof yet usually the cap gave in the stipulation to Order XVII Rule 1 Code of Civil Procedure ought to be kept up. At the point when we state ‘reasonable reason’ what we intend to state is, a reason which isn’t just ‘adequate reason’ as thought about in Sub-rule (1) of Order XVII Code of Civil Procedure however a reason which asks for deferment by a gathering during the becoming aware of the suit past three dismissals unavoidable and kind of a convincing need like abrupt disease of the prosecutor or the observer or the lawyer; demise in the group of any of them; common cataclysm like floods, tremor, and so on in the territory where any of these people dwell; a mishap including the disputant or the observer or the lawyer on path to the court and such like reason.

The rundown is just illustrative and not thorough. In any case, the non-appearance of the lawyer or his non-accessibility in light of professional work in other court or somewhere else or on the ground of strike call or the difference in a lawyer or the constant disease of the lawyer (the gathering whom he speaks to must at that point make elective course of action well ahead of time) or comparable grounds won’t legitimize multiple intermissions to a gathering during the knowing about the suit. The previous direct of a gathering in the lead of the procedures is a significant condition which the courts must keep in see at whatever point a solicitation for dismissal is made. Involved with the suit isn’t at freedom to continue with the preliminary at its recreation and delight and has no privilege to decide when the proof would be allowed in by it or the issue ought to be heard.

Adjournment in Court Hearings: An Overview of the process and its legislative recognition

The term adjourn, in layman’s term, implies a delay or to cease. The Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 doesn’t characterize the term in any case, be that as it may, Order XVII deals with adjournment explicitly.

“The court is adjourned!” This is a normal expression that individuals often hear in films and screenplays when a court continuing is going on and after this, it is seen that the court considers it daily and the adjudicators leave the court. Thus, this gives us a slight impression that adjournment presumably intends to stop the procedures of the court. The impressions are halfway right.

By and by, to break reality, the court isn’t adjourned yet the procedures of the court in the suit which the court is hearing at that current time are adjourned. It implies that the court doesn’t hear that particular issue any longer for that day yet the procedures prop up on and the court proceeds onward to different cases to be heard on that day.[1]

It is a legend made by motion pictures, media and other general media helps that we find in our day by day carries on with that courts continue deferring the hearings in a suit and continue giving later dates with no adequate explanation. It is indicated that courts permit the conference to be adjourned for reasons, for example, the respondent had different responsibilities or the observer didn’t get the gather, and so forth

It is completely a fantasy that courts continue adjourning hearings for reasons unknown since equity isn’t done in scramble and it is no equity to condemn without hearing the parties to their total fulfilment. There is a distinction between a standard continuing of life where we judge individuals on how they carry on as per us and the legal continuing.[2] The adjudicator is required to be fair and assume the respondent guiltless until in any case is demonstrated. The court can’t condemn without hearing the respondent on his protection regardless of whether the offended party’s case appears secure. Adjournment can be a bother to numerous people, the parties who are ordinary to court, the observers who may need to restore un-inspected. However, the court is should adequate chance to the next gathering to communicate its perspective and obviously, if toward the end court closes that the antagonistic party played foul and intentionally postponed the procedures, the court can make an order as to expenses to guarantee no unfairness is finished. Subsequently, adjournment is certainly not a one-sided weapon yet is a vital part of the court procedures and important to permit an unbiased and reasonable preliminary.

At the point when the knowing about proof has once started, the becoming aware of the suit will be proceeded from everyday until all the observers in participation have been analyzed, except if the Court finds the adjournment of the consultation past the next day to be essential for motivations to be recorded.[3] Adjournment is a sort of hold to a current continuing or delays the procedure to a later date.

Adjournment is completely optional, however the prudence must be practiced in a legal and sensible way not subjectively or with inclination way No firm test can be set down regarding how this watchfulness ought to be practiced on each event. It would differ as indicated by current realities and conditions of each case.[4]

Adjournment will be given to both the parties to give their contentions proof to call observers or carry proof to the court because of this adjournment will be conceded to the parties and this leaves will often be rehashed by lawyer, parties and judges this adjournment will be given for intentionally postponing the case. The Madras High Court saw on account of Unit Traders versus Official of Customs[5] that when there is a purposeful nonattendance on the date of hearings the request of denying regular equity isn’t allowable.

It is clear from Rule 1(2) stipulation (e) of Order 17 that where a witness is available in court yet the opposite side isn’t prepared to interrogate the witness, the court can get rid of his questioning. Yet, where a certifiable and genuine solicitation is made for adjournment, rather than falling back on relinquishment of the option to interrogate, the court may concede time by exacting costs.

An abstract of the provisions plainly exhibits that under the plan of CPC, a suit can’t be excused for non-instalment of costs. Non-instalment of costs brings about relinquishment of the option to additionally arraign the suit or protection by and large. Grant of costs, is an option accessible to the court, rather than abstaining from the interrogation and shutting the proof of the witness. In the event that the costs exacted for looking for an adjournment to interview a witness are not paid, the fitting course is to close the questioning of the witness and preclude the further indictment of the suit or the safeguard, as the case might be by the defaulting party.

The General Procedure of Adjournment in Courts

Order XVII of CPC manages the circumstances when adjournment can happen and the procedure to be trailed by the court during the adjournment of a conference.[6] Rule 1 of the Order engages the court to adjourn a conference in a suit if a gathering looking for adjournment shows the court that there is adequate explanation behind the adjournment. The procedure and attributes of an adjournment under Rule 1 of Order XVII can be enrolled as follows:

  1. The gathering to the suit must move the movement of adjournment under the watchful eye of the court. It implies that when the conference in a suit initiates, the gathering looking for adjournment of the meeting will demand the court to adjourn the consultation for that day. The court has the prudence to adjourn the meeting which implies that the court can decide not to adjourn the conference and continue ordinarily. Notwithstanding, the court can’t suo motu adjourn a case except if both of the parties or their pleaders make a solicitation.
  2. The gathering looking for adjournment of a consultation will give sufficient motivations to looking for adjournment of the conference. Date of hearing in a suit is consistently heard at any rate one month ahead of time. Thusly, the parties have an enormous weight to fulfill the court that adjournment is unavoidable and against the enthusiasm of equity.
  3. The consultation can be adjourned and the solicitation for adjournment can be made whenever during the knowing about the suit under the watchful eye of the court delivers the announcement. There is no particular stage for guaranteeing adjournment, nor is there a bar.
  4. The court will record the purposes behind adjournment of the meeting for that day recorded as a hard copy and such put down reasons will shape part of the account of the case.
  5. There can be a few explanations behind looking for adjournment of a conference and Rule 1 remembers one such motivation to be to give time to the parties to the suit to set up their individual cases.
  6. The court can’t allow an adjournment to a similar gathering more than threefold in a suit. It implies the all out number of adjournments permitted to be looked for by the parties are six in the total procedures.
  7. The court will give another date for hearing in the suit and declare the date before the parties in the wake of passing the adjournment order. Further, while looking into the date of the following hearing, the court will likewise pass an order concerning costs that should be borne in view of the deferment of the meeting.
  8. Adjournment will be a special case to the typical rule of everyday hearing until the case is usually discarded. Adjournment is just the final hotel of the court and should possibly be allowed if the conditions for the situation go outside the ability to control of the parties and the case should be adjourned. Rule 1 specifically makes reference to that a pleader can’t argue the reason of being occupied in another court for the explanation of adjournment.

Adjournment on Failure of Parties to show up

The overall procedure when involved with a suit neglects to show up is referenced all together IX of CPC. The rule enables the court to excuse the suit if the offended party is missing or pass an ex-parte order if the litigant is non-showing up. Nonetheless, Order XVII Rule 2 of CPC permits the court to go amiss from the overall rule and adjourn the consultation for that day in lieu of passing an ex-parte order or order of dismissal. Rule 3 expresses that if an individual who should give proof for the situation on the date for his/her proof, neglects to give proof and neglects to show up, the court can decide on two alternatives:

  1. On the off chance that the parties to the suit are available in the court, the court may continue to choose the suit further; and
  2. On the off chance that the parties or either party is missing, the court may continue as previously mentioned.

Effects of Adjournment

Adjournment influence the entire arrangement of law or the entire arrangement of equity there will be a famous issue is influencing the working of the court this disease will disintegrate the certainty of the individuals in the legal executive. Adjournment can’t be asserted starting at right, as the adjournment is in the circumspection of the Court and can’t be guaranteed as a right.[7] Adjournments add to delays in the removal of cases. They likewise add to difficulty, burden and cost to the parties and the observers. The observer has no stake for the situation and comes to help the court to apportion equity. He forfeits his time and comfort for this.

In the event that the case is adjourned he is needed to go to the court consistently. He will undoubtedly feel troubled and disappointed. This likewise offers a chance to the contrary party to compromise or instigate him not to talk reality. Adjournment extensively a deferral in a suit even after revisions of Civil Procedure Code which confines that no adjournment will be conceded multiple occasions. At present applications for adjournments are made in the summit court on grounds which would have been inconceivable previously and which, whenever made, would have met with a roaring dismissal. Today adjournments are the order of the day.

This training must stop despite the fact that it might make the appointed authority disliked. Judges are not taking an interest in a prominence contest.[8] As an article by IIM Calcutta states about the Adjournment There is an enormous postponement because of the cycles of court working during the preliminary stage for reasons specifically non-participation of witnesses, non-appearance of lawyers, protracted oral contentions, subjective adjournments and deferred decisions, the investigation said. Adjournment for condemning took a normal nine weeks, while court occasions and strikes devoured around five weeks. At that point there were different reasons for defer, for example, the nonappearance of lawyers of both offended party and the litigant and regularly, court engaging solicitations for deferment because of postponement in creating the required information.[9]

The lawyers must not overlook, that by looking for pointless adjournments, they are disappointing the real right of one of the disputing gathering and consequently by embracing lazy strategies, they are making a circumstance, where the contesting gathering may lose its confidence in the legal executive. It is the obligation of the courts to choose the issues as ahead of schedule as could be expected under the circumstances, and in the event that the lawyers decline to co-work with the courts, at that point a period has come, where the court would be left with no alternative except for to choose the issues all alone, by experiencing the record, and this circumstance could never help the prosecuting party.[10]

According to Order XVII Rule 1 in each such case the Court will fix a day for the further knowing about the suit, and will make such orders as to costs occasioned by the adjournment or such greater expenses as the Court regards fit. This is an overall arrangement overseeing adjournments and it is corresponding to area 35-B. The costs considered under this arrangement need not really be restricted to the costs acquired by the gathering for going to the court.

Section 35-B manages costs for delay. It expresses that where a gathering didn’t make a stride which it ought to have under the code or gotten an adjournment as respects the equivalent, he should pay such costs to the next gathering in order to repay him for going to court on the assigned date.

Tackling repeated Adjournments: The most appropriate Indian Judicial stance in the status quo

Justice Gautam Patel’s order dated 27 February 2018 in Ram Nagar Trust No. 1 v. Mehtab Sheik forcing an expense of Rs. 1000 for every one of the 450 days of postponement in documenting an affirmation, by the offended party, is a critical one with regards to the tremendous defer that portrays our legal framework.

The case is a unique suit documented in 2009 in the Bombay High Court. After issues were outlined on 26 September 2016, the offended parties were to record a rundown of witnesses, proof affirmation, and gathering, first, by 24 October 2016 and afterward by 5 November 2016. Nonetheless, nothing was documented until 27 February 2018 when the issue was recorded, wherein the offended parties looked for one more week to make their filings. Justice Patel would not concede time and forced costs. The order is invigorating as it uncovers that the educated appointed authority has not just perceived the explanations for the issue of postponement, however is resolved to address it in a way that re-establishes regard for the legal executive and the rule of law. Notwithstanding the arrangements of Order XVII of the Civil Procedure Code, adjournments are conceded as usual in all courts the nation over. On the off chance that, and when, a direction restricts an adjournment, an ostensible expense is forced on the gathering looking for the adjournment. Such ostensible costs have no discouragement on lawyers and parties looking for additional adjournments. The absence of a discouragement impact is much additionally concerning when an offended party who experiences the way toward starting legitimate activity, neglects to guarantee that sufficient advances are taken for the goal of the debate with a similar eagerness. Further the simplicity with which adjournments are given implies that there is no sureness of activity in any consultation in many courts on most days. Except if the legal executive finds a way to address this vulnerability, we can’t seek after convenient (not expedient) justice. Just when each consultation is successful, can a case be settled by the court inside a time span. On the off chance that a 2009 case can’t be paid attention to in 2018, we should bid farewell to our quest for justice.

Justice Patel’s order is in this way welcome, and one expectations that his brethren take cues from him. Different members in the framework, including lawyers, ought to comprehend and uphold Justice Patel’s thinking.

Non-appearance of counsels as a ground for Adjournment

While it more likely than not been a bustling week for the legitimate network with various key decisions with critical inquiries of law being settled (or agitated) by the Supreme Court, the judgment in Ram Siromani Tripathi and Ors. v. Territory of U.P and Ors.[11] seems to have caught the consideration of the legitimate network more than some other judgment.

The Court, in a one-page order, has ruled that ‘counsel being out of station’ isn’t a ground for conceding an adjournment. The Court at that point proceeded to state that since there was a finding that ‘being out of station’ is definitely not a legitimate ground for an adjournment “by no means, [an] application for reclamation will be engaged”. Since this is an order given by a Bench of three adjudicators, apparently the law on this issue stands settled (until a bigger seat overrules this).

There are maybe convincing approach reasons this must for sure be the legitimate position. It gives the idea that even in the past there has been cases of cases being excused hence not being re-established on record and convincing contentions being raised for the need to acknowledge this as a substantial ground for an adjournment.[12]

Nonetheless, that isn’t the topic of this piece. What I look to contend is that (I) while making this order, the Court has dismissed a significant differentiation – between a gathering and his lawyer; and that (ii) the last aspect of the order, which excuses an application for reclamation even before it is documented, is a dangerous one.

Rule (1) of Order XVII of the Code of Civil Procedure (which manages adjournments) expresses that the Court may concede an adjournment to “a gathering” if “adequate reason” is appeared. Sub-Rule (2) of that Rule at that point proceeds to state that adjournments are to be allowed just if the conditions are outside the ability to control of the gathering who looks for one; that the pleader of a gathering being occupied with another court isn’t a ground for adjournment; and that sickness of the pleader can be an explanation behind adjournment, in the event that it tends to be indicated that the gathering didn’t have sufficient opportunity to draw in another pleader.

These arrangements clarify that “adequate reason” is the key prerequisite and that “conditions outside the ability to control” of the gathering is the thing that should drive the translation of that expression. “Adequate reason” shows up in various different contexts (Such as Order 9 Rules 2,9 and 13 of the CPC and Section 5 of the Limitation Act) and it is settled law that “adequate reason” is to be perceived as something for which the gathering can’t be accused.[13]

“Party” is stressed, as adequate reason is to be appeared by the gathering (and not his lawyer) and it is essential to tolerate as a top priority that qualification. The Supreme Court has perceived this. Justice CK Thakker, composing for a Bench of two adjudicators saw that

“… when a gathering draws in a promoter who is expected to show up at the hour of hearing yet neglects to so show up, regularly, a gathering ought not endure because of default or non-appearance of the backer.”

Composing for a Bench of two adjudicators, Justice DA Desai watched:

“… . under our current foe overall set of laws where the parties by and large show up through their backers, the commitment of the parties is to choose his supporter, brief him, pay the expenses requested by him and afterward trust the scholarly promoter to wrap up of the things. The gathering might be a resident or may have a place with a provincial region and may have no information on the court’s procedure.

In the wake of drawing in a lawyer, the gathering may remain remarkably sure that the lawyer will take care of his advantage. At the hour of the becoming aware of the allure, the individual appearance of the gathering isn’t just not needed yet scarcely helpful. Subsequently, the gathering having given it his best shot to adequately take an interest in the procedures can have confidence that he has neither to go to the [Court] to enquire concerning what’s going on in the High Court as to his allure nor is he to go about as a guard dog of the promoter that the last shows up in the issue when it is recorded. It is no aspect of his responsibilities…

… What is the issue of the gathering who having done his absolute best and expected of him would endure due to the default of his supporter.”

Accordingly, if the gathering can show that he had connected with a lawyer (who was expected to show up in court and contend the issue), and if the lawyer doesn’t turn up in court, he has, (for the least) a doubtful instance of “adequate reason” to have his allure re-established. The benefits of that case will, obviously, must be resolved as and when that application comes up under the watchful eye of the court.

This is the reason the second aspect of the order is tricky. Accordingly, Order 9 Rule 9 (if not simply the arrangement, the standards behind which applies to the current case) empowers involved with cause an application to the court for the order of dismissal to be saved in the event that he to can show adequate reason, and nonappearance of the lawyer that he had drawn in can be adequate reason for the gathering to look for a rebuilding. The rule obviously perceives an option to make that application wherein he has the chance to exhibit whether there was adequate reason.

Just when such an application is introduced under the steady gaze of the court can the subject of adequacy of cause referred to be gone into. Till such time such an application is introduced, the topic of what is adequate is just a scholarly one. By deciding that the application will not be engaged (aside from the disarray about who isn’t to engage it – simply the court or even the library?) a significant legal right accessible to the gathering has been removed.

There is additionally lost open door for the court to have set some hard boundaries on this inquiry (regardless of whether advice being out of station is a ground to give an adjournment) in the wake of bearing both the parties to raise contentions on this check.

Until further notice, apparently the main cure left for Ram Siromani Tripathi (and others) is to sue his lawyer for professional carelessness. However, at that point, imagine a scenario in which his subsequent lawyer likewise leaves station. Then, lawyers and Senior Counsel may now begin “becoming sick” more often than leaving station.

Adjournment Applications and COVID-19: The need for India to take inspiration from the contemporary Irish Jurisprudence   

The Courts Service of Ireland has downsized and refined the action of the Courts to help with restricting the spread of COVID-19 by adjourning commonly any non-earnest issues recorded up toward the Easter get-away (See our itemized instructions on the Operation of the Courts here). The Courts Service has declared the dispatch of a pilot conspire for distant hearings during the next term which will start on 20 April. The extent of the pilot conspire stays obscure. All meeting dates fixed after that date stay in power, subject to applications for adjournments by the parties.

Despite the fact that parties looking for adjournments for the new lawful term ought to expect a level of compassion on the off chance that they can show bias to their position in light of the pandemic and related Government limitations, an ongoing High Court choice demonstrates that issues that have been considered adequately pressing to warrant section into exceptional case-oversaw records, for example, the Commercial, Competition and Strategic Infrastructure Lists are probably not going to be adjourned as usual.

Apparently the further a recorded hearing date is from the earliest starting point of the new term, the more uncertain it is that it will be adjourned based on pandemic-related interruption alone.

In Friends of the Irish Environment CLG v Minister for Communications ,Climate Action and the Environment​[14] the High Court wouldn’t adjourn a legal audit case recorded for hearing on 30 June 2020, notwithstanding the effect of COVID-19 on the capacity of the parties to get ready for case. The case had been admitted to the Strategic Infrastructure Development List, where the Court forces exacting case the executives courses of events, in accordance with the act of the Commercial Court.

The State had applied for the issue to be adjourned to a date in October, as a few key representatives who were probably going to be associated with giving proof for the situation are as of now engaged with critical work related with keeping up the security of the State’s energy flexibly throughout the pandemic. It additionally contended that distant working practices denied those representatives of admittance to significant physical and computerized records related with the case.

In declining to adjourn the 30 June hearing date (however extending the course of events for submitting key reports), the High Court underlined a few key contemplations. The meaningful issues to be resolved at hearing were primarily legitimate, instead of real issues. Along these lines, extensive sworn statement proof by key workers was probably not going to be required the calculated challenges related with COVID-19 can’t speak to an excuse for deferring the organization of justice, and everybody engaged with suit should adjust to the changed climate the High Court has a commitment to guarantee the public intrigue is served, and that procedures admitted to the Strategic Infrastructure List are resolved as fast as could be expected under the circumstances, while guaranteeing the organization of justice.

The adjournment application for the situation was resolved exclusively on composed proof and entries made by the parties, in spite of the fact that they were welcome to apply for an oral hearing on the off chance that they so wished.

Despite the fact that this choice speaks to an invite sign of plan to continue with planned hearing dates where useful, the Commercial Court has sounded a note of alert as to issues recorded toward the start of the next legitimate term. In an ongoing case[15], Barniville J allowed a challenged adjournment of a conference due to start on 21 April (the second day of the new lawful term), in spite of noticing that the issue was one ‘critical’.

Implication for India

The Courts Service’s way to deal with the pandemic to date shows a powerful urge to re-visitation of a higher degree of action as fast as could reasonably be expected. Parties with hearing dates planned for the new term should keep on getting ready on that premise, specifically if procedures are dependent upon dynamic case the executives in the Commercial, Competition or Strategic Infrastructure Lists, and on the off chance that they are recorded for a date past late April.

Significant Indian judicial attempts to answer the questions of adjournment

Amendment Act 1999 (w.e.f 1-7-2002) a few and most significant medicine has been changed regarding O.XVII Rule 1 it has gotten mandatory for the court to record the purposes behind adjournments of the meeting and limits at the quantity of adjournments to three just during the conference the suit. A civil suit ought to be chosen at the soonest and regardless inside one year from the date of its institution.[16] However, the suit will proceed with over 3 years even after endless points of reference this rule isn’t following by legal executive.

This arrangement was tested on account of Salem Advocate Bar Association v. Union of India[17] the arrangement restricting adjournments can’t be held to be ultra vires or illegal in some extreme case it might get important to concede adjournment regardless of the reality of three adjournments have just been allowed like the example of Bhopal gas misfortune, riots and other extremely genuine issue at that point Court can give an adjournment.

While considering the figure important to keep mind the administrative purpose to limit the award of adjournments. Indeed, even the council hold by Justice V.S Malimath made a suggestion on adjournment in criminal and civil change that adjournment ought to be allowed just when the court thinks that its vital and reason ought to be recorded to give adjournment this condition isn’t followed the Committee proposed an Arrears Eradication Scheme to handle cases that are forthcoming for over two years. Under the plan, such cases will be settled through Lok Adalats on a need premise. These cases will be heard on an everyday premise and no adjournment will be allowed.[18]


Relevant Principles laid down in various Judicial Precedents

In R. Vishwanathan and Ors. v. Abdul Wazid[19], the Apex Court while managing a comparable issue held that looking for adjournment either to dodge a specific Bench or to empower a specific lawyer to show up can’t be held to be supported, as such an endeavor at the command of the defendant might be either for Bench chasing or for embracing lazy strategies and in the event that the lead of the prosecutor shows such a mentality, the refusal of adjournment is advocated.

The Apex Court in Bashir Ahmed v. Mehmood Hussain Shah[20], while considering the arrangements of Order XVII Rule 1(2) stipulation (d) C.P.C., which gives that disease of an advice can’t be a ground for adjournment except if the Court is fulfilled that the gathering applying for adjournment couldn’t have connected with another direction in time, held as under:-

“Accordingly, the Court is urged to fulfil itself for that sake. In the event that the gathering draws in another advice as demonstrated in that, at that point the requirement for additional adjournment would be hindered. The words “in time” would show that at any rate sensible time might be given when a direction out of nowhere gets unwell. There would be sensible time for the parties to make elective course of action, when adequate time intercedes between the last date of adjournment and the next date of preliminary. In such a case, adjournment on the ground of guidance’s chronic sickness could be can’t and the gathering would bear the obligation regarding his inability to make elective plans.

The Supreme Court in Salem Advocate Bar Association (II) v. Association of India[21], while managing the issue of adjournments under Order XVII Rule 1 C.P.C., held that the case can be adjourned by the Court, given the gathering fulfils the Court that there exists uncommon and extraordinary conditions. The Court while considering such a supplication needs to remember the administrative purpose to limit the award of adjournments, as it can’t be asserted in a normal way. The conditions looking for adjournment must be demonstrated to be outside the ability to control of such a gathering.

So also, in Shibanand Mukherjee v. Gopal Chandra De[22], the Supreme Court managed the comparable issue of adjournment, wherein the case was excused by the High Court denying the adjournment and the application for reclamation was likewise dismissed. The Apex Court re-established the issue with the condition that a whole of Rs. 50,000/ – would be paid to the opposite side as remuneration. In the said case additionally, the lawyer didn’t show up due to sickness and had sent the ailment slip.

In Syed Naseem Ahmed v. Mohd. Abdul Hakeem[23], the Apex Court held that failure of lawyer to go to the Court can’t be a ground for adjournment and excused the allure without adjourning the case further. In Sheela Devi and Ors. v. Narbada Devi[24], the Supreme Court held that break of confidence with respect to the advice erroneously guaranteeing sickness as ground of failure to go to the Court is a professional unfortunate behavior and sending such bogus disease has been deplored and further activity was coordinated to be taken against the lawyer.

On account of Shiv Cotex v. Trigun Auto Plast Pvt. Ltd. and Ors.[25], it was held that the cap on adjournments to a gathering during the becoming aware of the suit gave in the stipulation to Order 17 Rule 1 CPC isn’t obligatory and in suitable case, on reasonable reason, the Court may allow multiple adjournments to a gathering for its proof keeping in see the cap gave in stipulation to Order 17 Rule 1.

Subsequently, from the abovementioned, the lawful suggestion rises that adjournment can’t be looked for by a prosecutor in a normal way. It must be a bonafide endeavor, for the gathering. Sickness of the direction can’t be a ground of looking for adjournment. In specific cases, Court can allow brief timeframe with the goal that an elective plan be made. It can’t be a methods for Bench chasing or lazy strategies. Where there are more than one insight, ailment of one guidance is no ground to adjourn the case.





Adjournments which a famous issue in the working of courts by giving chance to parties without adequate reason then this is an error on part of judges they do have a tact they can pass any order which they think fit so regardless of whether the parties are not showing up the court can excuse or pass an ex parte decree. Indeed, even this isn’t working a sensible sum ought to be forced any place court esteems fit so. The purposeful aim is to defer the issue which is available under the steady gaze of the court of law.

The explanation will be expressed by parties, a lawyer on the ground that unexpected sickness or physical infirmity for that reality proof will be given that proof ought to appropriately examine if there is any proof that proof which was given was bogus prompt move ought to be made against them as far as fine or deceiving court of law or burning through court time can be considered as wilful rebellion of the cycle of court. By closing the way that adjudicator or the court should see that there ought not be any unjustifiable favorable position of adjournment by giving unimportant adjournment.

An effective framework must be two strides in front of its constituents. In the context of justice framework, logical utilization of information from NJDG should help the legal executive in outlining procedures to counter the strategies utilized by disputants and blamed. A team at high court level or other suitable body may give a strategy to bring down legal executive. Such an arrangement could be a compelling apparatus, for example, against non-attendance and adjournments that remove three-fifths of accessible time.


Vaishnavi Salimath

III-year Law student National Law Institute University, Bhopal











  1. Takwani C. K., Civil Procedure with Limitation Act, 1963, 7th, Eastern Book Company, Lucknow, (2013).
  2. Sir D.F. Mulla, The Code of Civil Procedure, 19th, Vol. 3, Lexis Nexis, (2017).
  3. Sarkar, Sarkar Code of Civil Procedure, (2017).

Research Articles, Reports and Compilations

  1. Indian Legal Impetus, Singh & Associates, Vol. IX, Issue XII (Dec., 2016)
  2. Detailed Study of Civil Law System Substantive & Procedural Aspects, Shodhganga, available at:
  3. Law Commission of India, Costs in Civil Litigation, Report No. 240 (May, 2012)
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[2] Sir D.F. Mulla, The Code of Civil Procedure, 19 Edition, Vol. 3, Lexis Nexis, 2017.

[3] Kishan Lal Gupta v. Dujodwala Industries, AIR 1977 Del 49

[4] Makbul v. Sidik, A 1966 Or 41

[5] Unit Traders v. Commissioner of Customs, 2012 (281) ELT 659

[6] Takwani C. K., Civil Procedure with Limitation Act, 1963, 7th ed., Eastern Book Company, Lucknow, 2013.

[7] Chandra Prakash Ojha v. District Judge Barielly, AIR 2004 All 204.

[8] Sorabjee, Soli J. Role of the Judiciary: ‘Boon or Bane?’, India International Centre Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1993, pp. 1-17. JSTOR,

[9] News, I. (2019). What delays the delivery of justice in lower courts? IIM study finds out | India News – Times of India. [online] The Times of India. Available at:

[10] Sanjay Pinto, Time for adjournments running out?, Deccan Chronicle (2019), (last visited Oct 10, 2020)

[11] Ram Siromani Tripathi and Ors. v. Territory of U.P and Ors., CIVIL APPEAL Nos. 9142-9144 OF 2010.

[12] PD Aiyangar, Absence of Lawyers from Court: Whether Sufficient Reason for Restoration of Suit or Setting Side Ex-Parte Decree, (1948) 61 Law Weekly 69.

[13] Mulla, Code Of Civil Procedure (16th Ed.), LexisNexis Butterworths: Volume II, pp. 2083-2091; BB Mitra, The Limitation Act (23rd Ed.), Eastern Law House, pp. 193-194.

[14] CLG v. Minister for Communications ,Climate Action and the Environment, [2020] IEHC 159

[15] Perrigo Pharma International DAC v. McNamara & Ors., [2020] IEHC 169

[16] Anita Bhandari v. Union of India, 2003 (2) Guj LR 1093

[17] Salem Advocate Bar Assoc. v. Union of India, AIR 2005 SC 3353

[18] Committee on Reforms of Criminal Justice System Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs headed by Justice V.S Malimath.

[19] R. Vishwanathan and Ors. v. Abdul Wazid, AIR 1963 SC 1.

[20] Bashir Ahmed v. Mehmood Hussain Shah, AIR 1995 SC 1857.

[21] Salem Advocate Bar Association (II) v. Association of India, AIR 2005 SC 3353

[22] Shibanand Mukherjee v. Gopal Chandra De, (2005) 11 SCC 557

[23] Syed Naseem Ahmed v. Mohd. Abdul Hakeem, (2005) 12 SCC 302

[24] Sheela Devi and Ors. v. Narbada Devi, (2005) 13 SCC 432

[25] Shiv Cotex v. Trigun Auto Plast P.Ltd. and Ors., (2011) 10 SCR 787

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